seen as fulfilling Klein's intent to provide a base from which to fund as many artists as possible, while at the same time demonstrating the difficulty of facilitating that kind of philosophy.
The 1970s can certainly be seen as the heyday of media funding at the Rockefeller Foundation. During those years, media often comprised 20% of the arts budget, with an average of $500,000 annually,19 and the funding of television was listed as a separate category in the foundation's annual report. Within the foundation, there was significant support for the funding of media from several trustees, key among them Frank Stanton, former president of CBS, and John Knowles, president of the foundation from 1971 until his death in 1979. Within the media community, the role of the foundation was remarkably influential because of the timeliness of the Rockefeller money and because there were (and still are) so few foundations that chose to follow the route of funding the media arts. According to Klein, "One of the dangers of being on the cutting edge is that you are so far ahead, as indeed we found ourselves, that there are no partners". The 1970s was also a time when Klein had a lot of freedom in choosing his grants and in initiating programs and when his role was that of kingpin in the still-fledgling field of media. All of that changed in the 1980s, not only as the media community expanded but also as the foundation changed.
In early 1980, the foundation acquired a new president, Richard Lyman, formerly president of Stanford University. Foundations are constantly in the process of restructuring and redirecting their monies, and the new administration at the Rockefeller Foundation was no exception. Lyman and his board of trustees had a different attitude toward funding from their predecessors, and Lyman's tenure at the foundation has been marked by several sweeping policy changes. In 1981, a major announcement was made about undertaking a multimillion dollar campaign to assist single, minority, women heads-of-household by funding programs that train them for jobs in the private sector. In 1986, another shift was announced regarding an extensive new program of $300 million to promote economic and social development in the third world.
At the beginning of this period, Klein was aware that the old way of making grants was less popular, and he went about setting up programs in the arts designed to shield individual grants to artists. These programs, which include Opera America, Dance Works, Meet the Composer, Awards in the Visual Arts, and an interdisciplinary artists program (in addition to Fellowships for American Playwrights, which has been in place since 1974), are chosen by panels and through nominating committees and ally artists with institutions that can facilitate their work. Says Klein, All of the programs that I put together try
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