A-Bomb Footage and Hiroshima: The People's Legacy, produced by Japan Broadcasting Association (NHK).

Given Wise's political interest, his history as a supporter of the arts, and his awareness of new technologies and the political nature of art, it is not surprising that he has wholeheartedly directed his energy to an important global movement.  His is a persuasive concept of the role of artists in society and the responsibility of artists to technology and social change, which many may not share but might consider.

I would like to express my thanks to the many people who contributed information to this article.

MARITA STURKEN is a videomaker and critic of film and video in New York


1   TV as a Creative Medium (exhibition brochure), (Now York: Howard Wise Gallery, 1969), n.p.

2   Unless otherwise noted, all quotas from Frank Gillette are from an interview with the author, Nov.  I 1, 1983.

3    Davidson Gigliotti, "Video Art in the Sixties," Abstract Painting 1960-69 (exhibition catalogue), Long Island City, N.Y.: Institute for Art and Urban Resources Inc., 1983), n.p.

4  Howard Wise, "Kinetic Light Art," American Home (October 1969), p. 32.

5  Unless otherwise noted, quotes from Davidson Gigliotti are from an interview with the author, Aug. 7,1983.

6  Unless otherwise noted, quotes from Willoughby Sharp are from an interview with the author, Aug. 25,1983.

7   All quotes from Nam June Paik are from an interview with the author, Aug. 5,1983.

8   Wise earned a B.A. in history and international law at Cambridge University.

9   Unless otherwise noted, quotes from Howard Wise are from interviews with the author, October and November 1982.

10 The space is . occupied by the Allan Frumkin Gallery.

11 The Wise Gallery exhibition had, in fact, been scheduled for 1958, but several Agams disappeared from Wise's basement in Cleveland while he was away for the summer.  The Stedelijk exhibition traveled to the Moderna Museet in Stockholm, where Hulton was director.

12 Wise, American home, p. 28.

13 Otto Piene, who still continues his working relationship with Wise, recalls that prior to the exhibit he received a call in Dusseldorf from Wise after MacAgy had seen Group Zero's work: "It was a sensational event in 1964 for a New York art dealer to make a transatlantic call to an artist in Germany.  Howard was elated on the phone, talking about the exhibition we would have at the gallery.  He had just become a father again [Wise's daughter Juliet was born that year], and he was blossoming through the telephone."

All quotes from Otto Piene are from an interview with the author, Feb. 8, 1984.

14 Willoughby Sharp, Uecker (New York: Kineticism Press and Howard Wise Gallery, 1966), n.p.

15 Le Parc actually won in the category of painting, since his work fit neatly in none of the categories, and that year the Biennial judges recommended that categories be abolished altogether.

16 David L. Shiray, "Art is Light," Newsweek, Feb. 20, 1967, p. 1 01.

17 Paik had previously shown Electronic Blues, the first video piece exhibited at the gallery, in "Lights in Orbit."

18 Hilton Kramer, Now York Times, Dec. 16,1967.

19 The Forbes collection includes artists Jackie Cassen and Rudi Stern, Richard Hogle, Julio Le Parc, Otto Piene, Earl Reiback, and Thomas Tadlock.  See: American Home, October 1969.

20 All quotes from David Bermant are from an interview with the author, Sept. 16,1983.

21 Although this piece was published without a byline, Shamberg and others concur that he reviewed the show for Time.

22 All quotes from Eric Siegel are from an interview with the author,.  September 1983.  See also "Notes Toward a History of Image-

Processed Video," by Lucinda Furlong.  Aft erimage, Vol. 11, Nos. 1 &2 (Summer 1983), p. 35.

23 Les Levine produced two installations, Iris (1968 ) and Contact: A Cybernetic Sculpture (1969), which were important predecessors to Wipe Cycle, although less complex.  In Iris , six monitors in a grid show imagery of viewers in close-up, mid-range, and wide angle; in Contact, the concept of Iris is extended with similar imagery on 18 monitors (nine on either side), with images switching from screen to screen.

24 TV as a Creative Medium, op. cit.

25 Richard Kostelanetz, "Artistic Machines," Chicago Review, Vol. 23, No. 1 (1971), p. 124.

26 Moorman was convicted of indecent exposure for performing semi-nude.  Paik, as the composer, was acquitted.

27 All quotes from Charlotte Moorman are from an interview with the author, Sept. 17,1983.

28 TV as a Creative Medium, op. cit.

29 Ibid.

30 Jud Yalkut, "TV as a Creative Medium," Arts Magazine (September-October 1969), p. 22.

31 Siegel added "in color" to the title of the tape because color videotapes were unusual at the time.

32 Yalkut, p. 20

33 Barbara Rose, "Television as Art "inevitable" " Vogue (Aug. 15, 1969). p. 36.

34 Additional artists in "Vision & Television" were Ted Kraynik, Les Levine, Eugene Grayson Mattingly, John Reilly, Rudi Stem, Jud Yalkut, USCO/intermedia, and the Videofreax.

35 Steina Vasulka quoted in Lucinda Furlong, "Notes Toward a History of Image-Processed Video: Steina and Woody Vasulka," Afterimage, Vol.  I 1, No. 5 (December 1983), p. 13.

36 John S. Margolies," TV-The Next Medium," Art in America, Vol. 57, No. 5 (September/October 1969), p. 48.

37 Willoughby Sharp, "Luminism and Kineticism," Minimal Art.- A Critical Anthology, Gregory Battcock, ed. (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1968), p. 358.

38 8 From an interview with the author, Aug. 15,1983.

39 From a letter to the author, November 1983.

40 At the Leading Edge of Art (Now York: Electronic Arts Intermix, 1973), p. 8.

41 All quotes from Russell Connor are from an interview with the author, Sept. 20,1983.

42 The Vasulkas received funding through EAI until 1973, when they moved to Buffalo and the Kitchen was incorporated separately.

43 From an unpublished interview with Doidre Boyle, 1981.

44 Non-profit institutions pay $35.00/hour, and profit organizations pay $50.00/hour.

45 From a letter to the author, Aug. 4, 1983.

46 EAI videotapes rent for an average of $50.00 for A 30-minuto tape, and $75.00 for a 60-minute tape.

47 Howard Wise, "If We Can Reach the Year 2000," The Media Arts in Transition, Bill Horrigan, ed. (Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1983), p. 17.

Marita Sturken Copyright 1984



Howard Wise with Stainless Steel Fountain, by Len Lye.  Photograph

by Mottk Weissman.

Left: Installation view of Wipe Cycle (1969), by Frank Gillette and Ira Schneider.  Live Images of were intercut with broadcast images: at periodic intervals the screens were wiped blank.  Photograph by Howard Wise.  Top right: frame from Archetron (1968), by Thomas Tadlock.  A large console consisting of three monitors and an elaborate system of mirrors and filters created kaleidoscopic imagery from broadcast TV.  Bottom right: frame from Einstein (1968), a manipulated image sequence of Albert Einstein's face, by Eric Siegel.  All from "TV as a Creative Medium."

Installation view of "On the Move"(1964).  The show was the first U.S. survey exhibition of contemporary kinetic art, Photograph by Geoffrey Clements.  This and all installation views from the Howard Wise Gallery.

Linear Relay (1 970), an aluminum electronic piece with 20 speakers and I sound, by Howard Jones.  From "Three Sounds" (1 970), the final exhibition at the Howard Wise Gallery.   

Howard Wise introducing Charlotte Moorman at the Paik/Moorman performances for the Nam June Paik exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1982.  Photograph by Catherine Skopic.

Installation view Of TV Bra for Living Sculpture (1969), by Nam June Paik, performed by Charlotte Moorman.  Wearing two small TV sets on her breasts while playing the cello, Moorman's music altered the imagery on the monitors.  From "TV as a Creative Medium" (1969).  Photograph by Tom McCarthy.

Left: installation view of Cybernetic Sculpture (1968), by Wen-Ying Tsai.  The steel rods and polished metal plates vibrated according to the viewer's proximity, sound, or an external light.  Photograph by Eric Pollitzer.

Right: installation view of Electronic Zen Tri-Color Moon (1967),by Nam June Paik. From "Festival of Lights" (1967),a group show of light and sculpture. Photograph by Bernard Gotfryd.